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The files are identical. A WebSeeding BitTorrent client can download from either source, putting all the parts together into one complete file. Advantages There is always an unchoked seed where anybody can get started. It does not break or change anything for clients that do not recognize the addition to the metadata. The metadata does not have to be changed.
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The files are identical. A WebSeeding BitTorrent client can download from either source, putting all the parts together into one complete file.

Advantages There is always an unchoked seed where anybody can get started. It does not break or change anything for clients that do not recognize the addition to the metadata. The metadata does not have to be changed. Changes are only needed in BitTorrent clients.

Metadata Extension In the main area of the metadata file and not part of the “info” section, will be a new key, “url-list”. This key will refer to a one or more URLs, and will contain a list of web addresses where torrent data can be retrieved.

This key may be safely ignored if the client is not capable of using it. For example on multiple lines for readability: This allows. For example: A client would use all that to build a url: For HTTP you can use byte-ranges to resume anywhere or download specific ranges you specify, but with FTP you can only say where to start the download. You could use the byte-ranges with HTTP to request individual blocks–but each request will show in the server’s logs, and somebody is going to think it is a denial of service attack on them if their shows ‘s of connections in their log from the same IP.

In GetRight’s implementation, I made a couple changes to the usual “rarest first” piece-selection method to better allow “gaps” to develop between pieces. They can start at the beginning of a gap and download until they get to the end. Definition of Gaps Gaps are spaces of multiple pieces in a row that the client does not have. Given a bitfield “YYnnnnYnnY” where Y is pieces it has and n are ones it does not have, there are two “gaps”, one of 4 pieces, and another of 2.

Piece Selection The major change is to the Piece Selection. If everything else is more-or-less equivalent, it is better to pick a piece to do from the gap of 2 when requesting a piece from a BitTorrent peer. In any gap, it is best to fill in from the end ie, the highest piece number first. Changes to Piece Selection Change the “rarest first” piece selection to a “pretty rare with biggest distance from another completed piece”.

Pretty Rare With Biggest Gap When scanning for the rarest piece, if the distance from another completed piece is less than that for the current rarest piece, it must be “rare-X”.

For no better reason than it seemed to make sense at the time and scale, X is the square root of the number of peers minus 1. So if 3 peers had the current rarest piece, the normal algorithm would pick a piece where 2 peers had it.

The changed algorithm would require that only 1 peer has the piece if that piece’s distance from a complete piece was less than the gap for the current rarest piece. If the gap is bigger and the piece is the same “rareness” or the usual “rare-1” that piece is selected. So if the gap is bigger, a piece with either 2 or 3 peers would be chosen.

So given “YYnnn1Yn2Y”, unless 1 is a lot more rare than 2, it’s better to pick piece 2. Pseudo-Code logic: Every few pieces in GetRight it is randomly 1 in 10 , it will pick the piece with the smallest gap from a complete piece, ignoring all rareness. This helps fill in small gaps.

Clients can choose whether to do this step or not, and if implementing could use another percent of file completion. Given a bitfield “YYnnnnYnnY” it should start at: In this case, it may make more sense to do those using BitTorrent.

Blocks of pieces could treated as a single set and a single byte-range request to the HTTP server. This would reduce the number of HTTP connections, and might work well for a client. Pieces could be treated as blocks of 10, 50, or Some server administrators would not like this, because there will be s or s of requests in their logs for a single file. Some may even think it is a denial of service attack on them.

Other protocols may have additional issues, such as not allowing a download to start anywhere other than the beginning of the file.

Acknowledgements Thanks to Arvid Norberg libtorrent. And of course to Bram Cohen for creating this whole BitTorrent protocol.

Definition of Gaps

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